Ataturk’s Revolutions

Ataturk’s Revolutions

Atatürk made a series of revolutions in order to “raise Turkey to the level of contemporary civilization”.

These revolutions can be grouped under five headings:

  1. Political Revolutions:

Abolition of the Sultanate (1 November 1922)

  • Proclamation of the Republic (29 October 1923)

Abolition of the Caliphate (3 March 1924)

  1. Social Revolutions

Giving women equal rights with men (1926-1934)

Hat and dress revolution (25 November 1925)

Closure of dervish lodges and tombs (30 November 1925)

  • Surname law (21 June 1934)

Abolition of nicknames and titles (26 November 1934)

Adoption of international clocks, calendars and measures of length (1925-1931)

  1. Legal Revolution:

Abolition of the Mecelle (1924-1937)

Transition to the secular legal order by enacting the Turkish Civil Code and other laws (1924-1937)

  1. Revolutions in Education and Culture:

Unification of teaching (March 3, 1924)

  • Adoption of new Turkish letters (1 November 1928)
  • Establishment of Turkish Language and History Institutions (1931-1932)
  • Organization of university education (31 May 1933)
  • Innovations in fine arts
  1. Revolutions in Economics:
  • Abolition of tithe
  • Encourage the farmer
  • Establishment of sample farms

Establishment of industrial establishments by enacting the Industry Encouragement Law

  • I. and II. Implementation of the Development Plans (1933-1937), equipping the country with new roads

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